Immunoenzymatic colorimetric method for quantitative determination of thyroxine (T4) concentration in human serum and plasma.
T4 ELISA kit is intended for laboratory use only.
Legionella Pneumophila SG1 IgM
Legionella Pneumophila SG1 IgM
More than 30 species have been reported, but Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is responsible for most infections in humans. Atypical pneumonia is often associated with systemic manifestations. It is responsible for 10% of cases of pneumonia acquired in both the community and hospitals. During the infection, an immune response is produced against the L. pneumophila group related antigen. In the serological diagnosis of the disease, the only standardized technique is IFA.
It is necessary to prove seroconversion in order to confirm a serological diagnosis since high titers may be found in healthy population. A high titer in a single serum sample together with clinical symptoms suggests illness. The use of pools of different Legionella serogroups shows seroconversions that are not confirmed with monovalent antigens. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen alone should enable the serological diagnosis of 65-70% of the cases of legionnaires´s disease and avoid false positive results (Edelstein, 1992).
CytoBead® CeliAK is a reagent set for the qualitative and semiquantitative
determination of endomysial antibodies (EmA) of the
IgA and IgG classes, using sections of monkey esophagus, as well
as the determination of IgA/IgG antibodies against tissue
transglutaminase (tTG; Transglutaminase 2), deamidated gliadin
(DG) and a control of IgA antibodies in human serum.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is characterized by
the formation of attaching-and-effacing lesions in the involved
intestinal areas and it is of the main causes of persistent
diarrhea. EPEC is among the most important pathogen
infecting children worldwide because of their high prevalence
in both the community and hospital setting.
ENA Dot is used for the separate qualitative determination of autoantibodies
to nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens [Sm, Sm/RNP, SSA,
SS-B, Jo-1 (histidyl-t-RNA synthetase), and Scl-70
(topoisomerase I)] in human serum or plasma.
Invasive candidiasis is a disease of fungal ethiology with an increasing
incidence, specially in immunosuppressed patients (graft receivers,
neutropenic and AIDS patients, etc), long-stay hospitalized and
catheterized patients, as well as those subjected to extense surgery or
receiving broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis of invasive
candidiasis is specially difficult due to the absence of pathognomonic
symptoms specific of the disease and the low recovery of the
microorganism in culture. The present commercial diagnostic techniques
show a low specifity and sensitivity, being some of them too difficult to be
carried out in a Clinical microbiology laboratory. In order to overcome
these problems, a technique for the serologic diagnosis of invasive
candidiasis has been developed. This test is based upon the detection of
specific antibodies against antigens located on the cell wall surface of the
micelium of Candida albicans. These antibodies are normally present in
sera from patients with invasive candidiasis caused by C. albicans and
other species of this genus. The assay is performed by indirect
immunofluorescence after removal of other anti-candida antibodies usually
found in most human serum, thus avoiding possible false positive results.
This test can be performed with equipment available in a clinical laboratoy
and is completed in 3 hours.
Bacteria in the genus Enteroccoccus are non-spore forming,
facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci that often occur in
pairs or short chains. E. faecalis are non-motile enterococci
that can be commonly found as commensal organisms in the
intestines of humans. They are able to survive in low-enriched
environments such as water, soil or food. Enterococci have
both an intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics, making
them important nosocomial pathogens, with the ability to
cause life-threatening infections in humans. Infections
commonly caused by enterococci include urinary tract
infections, endocarditis, bacteremia, catheter-related
infections, wound infections, and intra-abdominal and pelvic
infections. Many infecting strains originate from the patient's
Syphilis is still a common sexually transmitted disease in many areas of
the world. In 1999 the WHO estimated that the worldwide annual
incidence of sexually acquired syphilis was 12 million cases. Venereal
syphilis is divided into: early syphilis subdivided into primary, secondary
and early latent stages; late syphilis that may occur after extended periods
of latent syphilis. Serological tests for syphilis are subdivided into: non
treponemal tests that measure IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material
released from damaged host cells and antibodies to lipoprotein-like
material and cardiolipin released from the treponemes. The most
commonly used are RPR card and VDRL. The tests are used for screening
and for determining the efficacy of threatment. They lack sensitivity in
early primary syphilis and in late syphilis and it can appear a prozone
reaction or false positive results. Treponema tests use T. pallidum subsp.
pallidum or its derivates (recombinant proteins). They are used as
confirmatory tests and in stablishing the diagnosis of late latent or late
syphilis. The most commonly used tests are: FTA-ABS, TP-PA (T.
pallidum particle agglutination) and MHA-IP (micro hemagglutination
assay to T. pallidum). Several tests using enzyme immunoassays (EIA)
have being used as confirmatory test for syphilis. they have sensitivities
and specificities similar to those of the other treponemal tests.
Diametra LH ELISA kit is a solid phase enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of the luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration in human serum or plasma.
LH ELISA kit is intended for laboratory use only.
Chlamydia has a great ability to cause respiratory infections, particularly
bronchitis and pneumonia. The species most implicated in respiratory
infections are Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila psittaci.
The higher incidence takes place in elderly people and it is considered
responsible of 10% of all the cases of pneumonia, although it has been
considered by some authors as the most frequent cause of those cases of
known ethiology. C. pneumoniae has been associated with the stablishment
of ateromatous disease and heart attach. The seroprevalence to C.
pneumoniae is low in infants but it can be higher than 50% in adults. In
primoinfections IgM antibodies appear before than IgG antibodies while in
reinfections IgM is rare, but IgG seroconversion takes place before. COMP
(Complexes of Outer Membrane Proteins) antigen is used in the present
assay, with LPS removed to avoid cross-reaction with other Chlamydias.
Salmonella are Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile,
rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family
Enterobacteriaceae. Most types of Salmonella live in the
intestinal tracts of animals and birds and are transmitted to
humans through contaminated food. Salmonella enterica
serotype enteritidis is one of the most common serotypes of
Salmonella bacteria reported worldwide and an important
cause of human illness. Infection causes fever, abdominal
cramps, and diarrhea beginning 12 to 72 hours after
consuming a contaminated food. Eggs have been the most
common food source linked to infection by serotype
enteritidis, since it can silently infect the ovaries of healthy
hens and contaminate the eggs before the shells are formed.
Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of
four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes (DEN-1,
DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), of the genus Flavivirus. DF and DHF are
primarily diseases of tropical and sub tropical areas, and the four different
dengue serotypes are maintained in a cycle that involves humans and the
Aedes mosquito. Infections produce a spectrum of clinical illness ranging
from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease.
Clinical manifestations include rash, sudden onset of fever, chills, severe
headache, nausea, myalgias and arthralgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
and hemorrhagic manifestations. It occasionally produces shock and
hemorrhage, leading to death. Important risk factors for DHF include the
strain of the infecting virus, as well as the age, and especially the prior
dengue infection history of the patient.
Dengue viraemia appears to be universal in febrile patients with dengue; it
occurs prior to the onset of fever and symptoms and peaks 2–3 days after
the onset of illness. A diagnosis of acute infection with dengue virus can
be made by isolating the virus or by detecting viral genome or antigen.
Serologically, a primary infection with dengue virus results in detectable
levels of IgM antibodies by the third afebrile day after infection. These
IgM antibodies persist for 1–2 months after infection. IgG antibodies are
detected approximately 14 days after onset of primary infections.
Secondary infections with dengue virus are characterized by a rapid
increase in IgG antibody levels. Owing to the relatively late increase in
antibody levels to a concentration that can be detected diagnostically, a
negative result for an antibody test early in the course of disease is not
definitive. Specimens should be collected at least 7 days after the onset of
symptoms in order to rule out the possibility of an acute infection with
Serology is the most widely applied method used in routine diagnosis.
Traditionally, hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests
have been used. At present ELISAs for IgM and IgG antibodies are the
standards for the serological analysis of dengue virus infections, as they
are simple and allow large numbers of samples to be tested.