Immunoenzymatic colorimetric method for quantitative determination of Triiodothyronine (T3) concentration in human serum and plasma.
T3 ELISA kit is intended for laboratory use only.
ESCHERICHIA COLI (EIEC) DNA Ctrl
ESCHERICHIA COLI (EIEC) DNA Ctrl
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) infection causes a
syndrome that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea
and high fever. EIEC are highly invasive, and they utilize
adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. They
produce no toxins, but severely damage the intestinal wall
through mechanical cell destruction. It is closely related to
The parvoviruses are small spherical virus with a genome of single chain
DNA without lipid envelope. Parvovirus B19 only infects and is
transmitted between humans. Approximately 50% of the adult population
has been infected sometime during childhood or adolescence. It usually
causes a mild illness that resolves without medical treatment in the
immunocompetent adults and children. The disease usually appears in
children as erythema. Arthritis without rash is a common manifestation of
the B19 infection in adults. In immunosuppressed patients, infection can
persist, causing severe acute anemia. The most important complication
appears in women during pregnancy. Approximately 50% of women are
immune to parvovirus B19 and they and their babies are protected against
infection. Despite that most of women who suffer a B19 infection during
pregnancy, have a healthy baby to term, parvovirus B19 can cross the
placenta, infect the fetus and cause hydrops and fetal death. This happens
in less than 5% of pregnant women infected with parvovirus B19 and
happens more commonly during the first half of pregnancy. The infection
is contagious during the early phase of disease before the rash appears. The
virus is probably transmitted person to person by direct contact with
respiratory secretions of infected persons.
Because parvovirus B19 is unable to replicate in culture, serological tests
with PCR techniques are used for the B19 diagnosis. During the acute
illness, parvovirus B19 is found mainly in blood, with a severe decrease in
the level of viremia that coincides with the start of production of specific
antibodies against B19. For this reason, the diagnosis of parvovirus B19
infection in immunocompetent patients is carried out mainly by antiviral
antibody ELISA and IFI. However, PCR methods are particularly useful in
patients who don't have adequate antibody immune response,
immunocompromised individuals and fetuses.
Specific IgM antibodies against parvovirus B19 is detectable in serum
within 7 to 10 days after infection, and if present, indicate a recent or acute
infection. Characteristically, the specific IgM against parvovirus B19 can
be measured for 2 to 3 months after the start infection before they drop to
undetectable levels. The production of specific IgG antibodies against
parvovirus B19 happens between 10 and 12 days after infection, almost as
soon as they become detectable specific IgM. Circulating specifics IgG
antibodies to parvovirus B19 may persist for years in most individuals,
and, if they are present, it's believed that to provide protective immunity.
ASMA IFA is used for the qualitative and semi-quantitative
determination of anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) in human
serum on tissue sections of rat stomach for the diagnosis of
Leishmania are flagellated protozoa that present two phases in
its life cycle: amastigote (found within the reticuloendothelial
cells of mammalian hosts) and promastigote (the multiplying
form in the vector). It is transmitted through the bites of
infected female phlebotomines. The infection can be limited to
the macrophages around the bite (oriental sore) or spread
affecting the spleen, liver and bone marrow (kala-azar).
Rubella is an exanthematous viral disease of children and young adults. It
is a self-limited and benign disease characterized by fever, mild upper
respiratory symptoms, erythematous rash and suboccipital
lymphodenopathy. Rubella can be a very serious disease early in
pregnancy leading miscarriages or birth defects up to 85% of cases.
Reinfection occurs more frecuently in vaccinated that in naturally immune
individuals. The majority of these reinfections occur without symptoms.
Rubella reinfections during pregnancy rarely results in transmission of the
virus to the unborn child. Antibodies appear at the begining of the disease
and initially both IgG and IgM can be detected. IgG antibodies usually
persist throughout life. IgM antibodies do not persist beyond 8 weeks. The
RUBELLA ELISA IgG has been standardised against the WHO first
international standard for anti-rubella immunoglobulin with a cut off
control set at 10 U.I./ml
Rotavirus is an icosahedral, double stranded RNA virus of 80
nm in diameter. Mature virions are non-enveloped doubleshelled
viruses wheel-like appearance when viewed by
electron microscopy. In temperate climate countries, the
disease has a winter seasonal pattern. The primary mode of
transmission is via faecal-oral route. Rotavirus is the most
common cause of severe diarrhoea among children. Adults can
also be infected, though disease tends to be milder. The
incubation period for rotavirus disease is approximately 2 days.
The disease is characterized by vomiting and watery diarrhea
for 3 to 8 days, and fever and abdominal pain occur frequently.
Immunity after infection is incomplete, but repeat infections
tend to be less severe than the original infection.
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan that presents three stages in
its developmental life cycle: oocyst, tachyzoite and bradyzoite.
While only members of the family Felidae can be definitive
hosts of the parasite, a great variety of animals can harbour
the tissue cysts. Although consuming contaminated food is the
most common way of becoming infected, transplacental
infection may occur. The disease is normally benign, but
central nervous system disease may appear in
immunocompromised patients and the newborn.
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore
forming, rod-shaped bacterium in the family
Enterobacteriaceae. They are normal inhabitants of the
gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans of which only
some strains cause diarrhoea and a range of extra-intestinal
diseases. Some diarrhoegenic strains produce toxins that have
a cytopathic effect on Vero cells and are called
verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC); they are also described as
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. A subset of VTEC, designated
enterohaemorrhagic E. coli is characterized for their capacity to
cause haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome
in humans. Two main types of verotoxins (VT1 and VT2) have
been identified, together with several variants of the VT2 type.