Q fever is a systemic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii that can produce
fever, atypical pneumonia, hepatitis or endocarditis. The diagnosis is based
on serological methods since isolation from clinical samples is difficult. C.
burnetii expressed phase I antigen when isolated from humans and animals
and phase II antigen when isolated from cell culture. Antibodies against
phase II antigen are predominant in the acute phase of the disease. The
tests normally employed are complement fixation (CF), indirect
immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and ELISA. After 4-8 weeks, the maximun
level of IgG antibody is detected. IgM antibodies apear since the second
week until the fourth month of the acute phase of illness. In those cases of
acute infection where IgG antibodies are detected at higher titres, it is
highly probable to find IgM as well. In the chronic phases (endocarditis),
IgM is not detectable. ELISA tests, due to its high specificity and good
sensibility, have proved greatly useful both for epidemiologic screening
and diagnostic test for human Q fever.
More than 30 species have been reported, but Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is responsible for most infections in humans. Atypical pneumonia is often associated with systemic manifestations. It is responsible for 10% of cases of pneumonia acquired in both the community and hospitals. During the infection, an immune response is produced against the L. pneumophila group related antigen. In the serological diagnosis of the disease, the only standardized technique is IFA.
It is necessary to prove seroconversion in order to confirm a serological diagnosis since high titers may be found in healthy population. A high titer in a single serum sample together with clinical symptoms suggests illness. The use of pools of different Legionella serogroups shows seroconversions that are not confirmed with monovalent antigens. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen alone should enable the serological diagnosis of 65-70% of the cases of legionnaires´s disease and avoid false positive results (Edelstein, 1992).
Competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method for quantitative determination of Aldosterone concentration in human serum, human plasma or urine.
Aldosterone ELISA kit is intended for laboratory use only.
Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative, non-spore forming,
microaerophilic, and motile spiral-shaped bacteria. Most
people infected with H. pylori never develop symptoms. H.
pylori causes chronic active, chronic persistent, and atrophic
gastritis in adults and children. Infection with H. pylori also
causes duodenal and gastric ulcers. Infected persons have a 2-
to 6-fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer and
mucosal-associated-lymphoid-type lymphoma. Exact
transmission is unknown, but it is thought to be fecal-oral or
possibly oral-oral. Possible environmental reservoirs include
contaminated water sources.
Chlamydia has a great ability to cause respiratory infections, particularly
bronchitis and pneumonia. The species most implicated in respiratory
infections are Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila psittaci.
The higher incidence takes place in elderly people and it is considered
responsible of 10% of all the cases of pneumonia, although it has been
considered by some authors as the most frequent cause of those cases of
known ethiology. C. pneumoniae has been associated with the stablishment
of ateromatous disease and heart attach. The seroprevalence to C.
pneumoniae is low in infants but it can be higher than 50% in adults. In
primoinfections IgM antibodies appear before than IgG antibodies while in
reinfections IgM is rare, but IgG seroconversion takes place before. COMP
(Complexes of Outer Membrane Proteins) antigen is used in the present
assay, with LPS removed to avoid cross-reaction with other Chlamydias.
Cytomegalovirus is an enveloped, icosahedral, double stranded
DNA virus with a diameter of 120 to 200 nm. It is an important
agent of congenital infection and can produce life-threatening
illness in transplant and AIDS patients. A primary infection in
adults may be asymptomatic or result in various syndromes,
including mononucleosis, hepatitis or pneumonitis.
Anti-Phospholipid 10 Dot is used for the qualitative detection of IgG or IgM antibodies to phospholipids and serum proteins in human serum, for the diagnosis of anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS).