pANCA IFA is used for the sensitive qualitative and semiquantitative
determination of IgG antibodies to neutrophil
cytoplasmatic antigens (ANCA) in human serum using indirect
immunoflorescence assay on formalin fixed human granulocytes
for the differential diagnosis of systemic vasculitis (SV). The assay
is used for the confirmation of pANCA positive results found on
ethanol fixed granulocytes.
Mycobacterium ulcerans is an strictly aerobic,
nonchromogenic, acid fast bacillary bacterium that grows
slowly at 29-33ºC. It is the causal agent of Buruli´s ulcer:
infection leads to extensive destruction of skin and soft tissue
with the formation of large ulcers usually on the legs or arms.
M. ulcerans is an environmental mycobacterium; Buruli ulcer
frequently occurs near water bodies.
Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is a Gram-negative,
oxidase-positive, aerobic, coccal bacterium that appears
microscopically under diplococcal arrangement. Strains are
serogrouped on the basis of their capsular polysaccharides.
The meningococcus usually inhabits the human nasopharynx
without causing detectable disease. It may cause
Bartonella are fastidious, aerobic, short, Gram-negative,
coccobacillary or bacillary bacteria, that are highly haemin
dependent in their nutritional requirements. Cats are the main
reservoirs of B. henselae, the causal agent of cat scratch
Adenovirus is an important respiratory tract agent that can produce pneumonia and bronchiolitis in small children. Adenovirus infections can be diagnosed in the laboratory by three classical methods: direct antigen detection on clinical specimens; culture techniques to isolate and identify the virus and serological tests to measure rises in antibodies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the predominant antibody class measured but sometimes the IgM detection is the only way to reach a diagnosis. The most widely accepted tests are complement fixation (CF) and ELISA. The IFA test is being increasingly used to detect IgG and IgM. Sometimes, there is no serological response, but the IgM detection is often the only way to reach a diagnosis.
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic,
endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Widely distributed
in soils of all kinds, it causes opportunistic infections and two
types of food poisoning: a diarrhoeal syndrome and an emetic
Characteristic symptoms of influenza in adults are: high fever, headache, photophobia, sore throat, cough, malaise and myalgia. Fever usually lasts for three days, while cough persists for longer. Sometimes, it causes croup in children.
Elderly patients suffering from chronic bronchopathy often present tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis. Syndroms of bacterial pneumonia secundary to a viral infection are very frequent, specially in elderly people with a pre-existing pathology. Diffuse haemorrhagic viral pneumonia may develop in patients with a cardiovascular disease. Myositis and myoglobinuria have been described associated to influenza. Infants can present severe respiratory infection together with convulsions and encephalitis. Uncommon complications are: otitis media, myocarditis, toxic shock syndrome and Reye syndrome associated to aspirine ingestion. Infections by influenza virus is also associated with kidney or bone marrow transplanted patients. Isolated cases out of the epidemic season are difficult to diagnose clinically. It is also difficult to reach a clinical diagnosis during epidemics, since it can be confused with other respiratory diseases. Hence, the laboratory diagnosis is highly useful, particulary in high risk patients. Complement fixation, ELISA and IFA are the most useful technics to diagnosis the disease.
Enterovirus 71 is a nonenveloped, icosahedral, single stranded
RNA (+) virus of small size (30 nm). Enterovirus 71 infection
may be asymptomatic or may cause diarrhoea, rashes and
hand, foot and mouth disease. It is often associated to severe
Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and a high prevalence.
The infection with H. pylori is well established as a major cause of gastric
and duodenal ulcers. The persistent infection with H. pylori is a risk factor
for the development of gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. The infection
produces elevated levels of specific H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies in
serum. IgM specific levels has not proven useful in the clinical laboratory.
ELISA tests for the detection of H. pylori antibodies are sensitive, specific
and cost effective in untreated patiens. The detection of H. pylori specific
IgA alone is less sensitive than the detection of specific IgG antibodies. In
untreated persons specific IgG and IgA remain elevated for years and
successful eradication decreases the IgG and IgA levels, although in some
individuals specific antibodies can persist during a long time. Because the
infection with H. pylori is so prevalent the test should be performed only
on individuals with symptoms. The prevalence of H. pylori antibodies
increases with the age. A positive result only indicates that the patient has
antibodies to H. pylori and if the individual has not been treated, a positive
result very likely indicates an active infection with H. pylori. A definitive
diagnosis should be given only when the clinical signs and symptoms of
the patient are compatible.